Last Updated: May 8, 2018
As a skinny hardgainer, which is very much a real phenomenon in the bodybuilding world (see what is a hardgainer), you're going to have to fine-tune a smart, science-based hardgainer workout routine and diet that's properly structured and designed for effective gains if you want to get the great results that are absolutely 100% still possible for you.
The following bodybuilding tips apply to anybody looking to build muscle, but should be especially considered as a skinny hardgainer or ectomorph (they're the same thing, really). Avoiding the below guidelines for your hardgainer workout routine and diet is just gonna make things harder on yourself:
Don't Use "Hardgainer" As An Excuse
Firstly, as mentioned you most definitely can build the dream physique you've always wanted even if you're a hardgainer with slightly worse muscle gain genetics than others. As a hardgainer you simply will need a little more patience to build significant muscle mass, but once you start getting results your body will adapt and muscle gain will become easier and easier. This is exactly what's happened to me as a (former) hardgainer, and countless of others who have turned their physique destinies around to build amazing physiques starting out as a paper-thin noob.
Be 100% Sure You're Eating a Caloric Surplus
Some guys who complain that they can't gain weight are actually in fact not eating enough food, despite thinking that they are. You can't just wing your diet without counting your total calories in as a beginner, cause you're bound to get it wrong. I know I certainly did when I first started out - it felt like I was eating ten horses a day, but in fact, I was barely getting enough calories in to support the extra muscle tissue that I wanted to pack on.
If you don't eat more calories than you require to maintain your current weight, which could be a ton of calories as your typical hardgainer not only has slightly slower ability to gain muscle but a high metabolism to boot, you don't have a chance of gaining weight no matter what you lift in the gym.
Of course, don't go overboard and down 100 Big Macs a day as then you're just gonna get fat; you can only gain a certain amount of muscle at a time, so slow it down big boy.
Don't Neglect Carbs
Protein is talked about a lot in bodybuilding, and is absolutely required in good amounts to build muscle as muscle basically is protein, but carbs are sometimes overlooked as they get a bit of a bad rep in mainstream fitness circles these days (for good reason in general as too much carbs is never good).
But as a hardgainer looking to put some meat on your bones, which basically goes against the norm of a world obsessed with losing weight, you should make doubly sure you're eating plenty of carbs to support the weight gain you're after as protein alone won't do it.
So, don't just up your protein intake, but your carbs too, ideally from complex carbohydrates and not simple carbs like sugar/white carbs etc. Whatever you do, as a skinny guy a diet like paleo or low-carb where you're hardly eating many carbs and focusing mostly on protein and fats is probably going to get in the way of your mass building goals.
A staple of mine over the years that has always helped me pack on muscle mass as a hardgainer is good old brown rice, which is very versatile and you can add so many things to it to make it super tasty.
Don't Avoid Compound Weight Training Exercises
For an ideal hardgainer workout routine you want to stick to the most taxing (ie difficult) exercises that you can, that recruit the most muscles and that stimulate the most breakdown of muscle tissue. Doing lighter workouts such as sticking solely to mostly to machines, just doing bodyweight exercises, or focusing too much on easy feel-good isolation exercises (*cough* curls *cough) isn't going to help you build significant mass, strength and muscle anytime soon.
Sure, if you're a total noob in the gym and never lifted something before, you might want to ease into training by doing some lighter stuff like machines and/or bodyweight routines, but eventually if you're committed to really transforming from skinny to superhero, you're going to have to eventually hit the big boy lifts ie compound exercises.
Nothing is gonna pack more muscle on your skinny little frame than big lifts such as squats, deadlifts, barbell rows, pull-ups, and bench presses. Sticking to the safe, easier, less-taxing exercises is gonna waste your time if you want the best results.
Hardgainers Should Probably Train LESS
Sounds a bit contradictory; as a hardgainer you may expect that you should be lifting more than others, hitting the weights harder, and putting in more time and effort in the gym. But the reality is, you likely want to consider working out a bit less often than is typically recommended by mainstream fitness advice or bodybuilding gurus. Hitting the gym 7 days a week like Arnie did back in the day isn't going to help your skinny-guy cause.
Why? Let me explain.
Sure, you need to train hard and as heavy as you can. However, in terms of training frequency, for an ideal hardgainer workout routine you don't want to overdo it so that you can give your body plenty of time and days off to rest and recover, which is how you actually grow after all. Muscle mass gains don't happen in the gym; they occur when you're at rest and eating and sleeping.
Going at it 7, 6 or even 5 days a week is too much and there's a good chance you're not allowing enough time to rest and recover to come back fully rested, stronger than before, and ready to lift slightly more/heavier than your last session.
Plus, you don't want to spend hours in the gym when you go as you're just expending too much energy (explained below) and it's not going to further encourage more muscle gain by training longer. Muscle gain isn't related to how long you workout, but how intense you go at it. So keep your workouts short and sweet (max of 1 hour per session is all you need).
Don't Be Too Cardio Crazy
If you're a true hardgainer aka a skinny guy with an ectomorph body type, you also have a high metabolism. Therefore, if you're struggling to gain weight and build muscle then doing too much aerobic exercise such as going for long rides, runs, jogs, or whatever you're into, isn't really helping your cause.
It can be tough enough to get in the required calories to be in a caloric surplus to ensure your hardgainer workout routines aren't in vain, especially if you're never had to eat so much before in your life as it can be a little out of your comfort zone to down so much (hopefully health) food each and every day, so adding in too much extra exercise activity in your day is going to make it even harder as you'll need to take this into account with your diet and eat even more.
Cardio is always good for general health, so keep up your daily walks and light jogs/rides (not saying you should become a couch potato) - but don't overdo the cardio sessions if you're serious about gaining maximum muscle weight. Plus, even if you can eat the required calories to take into account your weight training sessions AND more extended cardio, another reason this could slow you down is because your cardio is likely to be taking energy, focus and effort away from your weight routines which isn't really a good idea as you should be dedicating most of your physical energy to your mass gain sessions.
Hopefully this article has helped, but always remember to never get stuck in research land - information is great, but what's 10x more important and essentially the only thing that really matters to get big results (and without having to wait years) is to be consistently applying/executing on a properly structured, effective program week in week out. Ideally that program should be well-balanced and specifically designed for you as a skinny beginner/hardgainer, that includes all the leading science-based principles and strategies for effective weight gain and muscle growth.
Are you going to seize this year and get GREAT results, or are you going to let it go to waste and end up in the same place this time next year, looking and feeling pretty much the exact same way that you do now like most guys? You essentially have 3 ways to leave the excuses and dreaming behind and get on the fast-track to levelling up your physique and your life for good.
Learn all the crucial basics, principles and over-arching strategies you need to know about planning the best well-balanced, science-based, all-natural mass building program for your specific goal and workout/diet preferences with our pillar 7-step comprehensive guide for beginner lifters and future heros. If you don't want to spend any money at all, this is how you do it, but be sure to thoroughly research all aspects of your DIY muscle gain program as an unbalanced/bro-science/straight-up-bad program can mean little to no gains at best, and bad posture, injuries and a whole lot of having to backtrack later at worst.
To save time having to research and plan the best muscle building program for your specific goals as a hardgainer/skinny-guy/skinny-fat-dad-bod/whatever, there are indeed some excellent pre-made online programs out there that have stood the test of time in getting guys great results. It can give you a great head-on your transformation journey, and will make things simpler for you as it's simply a matter of executing a specific eating and workout program and not having to worry about getting all the little important details of your program on-point. Sean Nal's hardgainer transformation program (see my full review and before/after pics using the program here) is the complete all-in-one online program I'd recommend to most people and especially beginners, and is the one I personally got the most out of it when I first started. Ignore any slick marketing, this guy's the real deal and easily one of the smartest hardgainers-turned-fitness-models I've come across online. Vince Delmonte's Mass Gain program comes in at a close second, who's another reputable guy with a great step by step online program that has been proven to work effectively for thousands of guys worldwide.
Path C: Find a (Good) In-Person Trainer
The most expensive option to achieve your dreams, but if you have the money to spend (1 on 1 coaching can quickly add up in costs) then ensure you pick a trainer who understands the science behind muscle gain, fat burning, supplementation, nutrition, etc, and most importantly choose one who practices what they preach and has similar results to what you want. If you're a hardgainer, ideally you'll want a trainer who has been in your shoes before and started out as a skinny hardgainer themselves and managed to build muscle successfully, otherwise they may not understand the best course of action for you and give you unhelpful generic advice because they found it easier than you to gain size.
Whichever path you choose - stick with it for long enough, don't give up, and your success in completely transforming your body, strength, health, posture, and confidence will simply be a matter of time. Good luck.
Mad-Scientist of Hardgainer-to-Hero Transformations for 12 Years & Counting
Last and Definitely Least: Certified Fitness Instructor (real-world experience > school)